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  a. 按重要性顺序排列(arrangement in order of importance)   if you work as a soda jerker, you will, of course, not need much skill in expressing yourself to be effective. if you work on a machine, your ability to express yourself will be of little importance. but as soon as you move one step up from the bottom, your effectiveness depends on your ability to reach others through the spoken or the written word. and the further away your job is from manual work, the larger the organization of which you are an employee, the more important it will be that you know how to convey your thoughts in writing or speaking. in the very large business organization, whether it is the government, the large corporation, or the army, this ability to express oneself is perhaps the most important of all the skills a man can possess.   这一段谈的是表达能力,它的重要性与职业,身份有关,从“not need much skill”或“of little importance”到“more important”,最后是“most important”。   b.由一般到特殊排列(general-to-specific arrangement)   if a reader is lost, it is generally because the writer has not been careful enough to keep him on the path. this carelessness can take any number of forms. perhaps a sentence is so excessively cluttered that the reader, hacking his way through the verbiage, simply doesn't know what it means. perhaps a sentence has been so shoddily constructed that the reader could read it in any of several ways. perhaps the writer has switched tenses, or has switched pronouns in mid-sentence, so the reader loses track of when the action took place or who is talking. perhaps sentence b is not logical sequel to sentence a —— the writer, in whose head the connection is clear, has not bothered to provide the missing link. perhaps the writer has used an important word incorrectly by not taking the trouble to look it up. he may think that "sanguine" and "sanguinary" mean the same thing, but the difference is a bloody big one. the reader can only infer what the writer is trying to imply.   这一段谈的是a writer's carelessness,先给出一个general statement作为主题句,然后通过5个 "perhaps"加以例证。   c. 由特殊到一般排列(specific-to-general arrangement)   i do not understand why people confuse my siamese cat, prissy, with the one i had several years ago, henry. the two cats are only alike in breed. prissy, a quiet, feminine feline, loves me dearly but not possessively. she likes to keep her distance from people, exert her independence and is never so rude as to beg, lick, or sniff unceremoniously. her usual posture is sitting upright, eyes closed, perfectly still. prissy is a very proper cat. henry, on the other hand, loved me dearly but possessively. he was my shadow from morning till night. he expected me to constantly entertain him. henry never cared who saw him do anything, whether it was decorous or not, and he usually offended my friends in some way. the cat made himself quite comfortable, on the top of the television, across stranger's feet or laps, in beds, drawers, sacks, closets, or nooks. the difference between them is imperceptible to strangers.   本段的主题句是段首句,它仅提出一个问题:为什么两只猫会被搞混。然后对两者进行比较,末句才下结论。   2)、形连   行文的逻辑性常常要靠适当的转换词语及其他手段来实现。请读下面这一段文字并找出文中用以承上启下的词语:   walter's goal in life was to become a successful surgeon. first, though, he had to get through high school, so he concentrated all his efforts on his studies —— in particular, biology, chemistry, and math. because he worked constantly on these subjects, walter became proficient in them; however, walter forgot that he needed to master other subjects besides those he had chosen. as a result, during his junior year of high school, walter failed both english and latin. consequently, he had to repeat these subjects and he was almost unable to graduate on schedule. finally, on june 6, walter achieved the first step toward realizing his goal.   本文中起承上启下的词语有两种,一种是转换词语(transitional words or phrases),另一种是起转换作用的其他连接手段(linking devices)。前者依次有:first, though, so, in particular, and, because, however, besides, as a result, both…and, consequently, and, finally.后者依次是:he, he, his, his, he, these, them, he, those, his, he, these, his. 本段中共有词汇105个,所使用的转换词语及其他连接用语共26个词,约占该段总词汇量的四分之一。由此可见,掌握好transitions不仅对行文的流(smoothness)有益,而且对于学生在半个小时内写120个词也是不无好处的。   一个段落里如果没有transitions也就很难有coherence了.我们看下面一个例子:   speaking and writing are different in many ways. speech depends on sounds. writing uses written symbols. speech developed about 500 000 en211ago. written language is arecent development. it was invented only about six thousand years ago. speech is usually informal. the word choice of writing is often relatively formal. pronunciation and accent often tell where the speaker is from. pronunciation and accent are ignored in writing. a standard diction and spelling system prevails in the written language of most countries. speech relies on gesture, loudness, and rise and fall of the voice. writing lacks gesture, loudness and the rise and fall of the voice. careful speakers and writers are aware of the differences.   本段中除了第6句开头出现一个起过渡作用的"it"之外,没有使用其他的过渡词语.这样,文中出现许多重复的词语,全段读起来也显得生硬而不自然。如果加上必要的过渡词语来修饰的话,这一段就成了下面一个流畅连贯的段落:   speaking and writing are different in many ways. speech depends on sounds; writing, on the other hand, uses written symbols. speech was developed about 500 000 years ago, but written language is a recent development, invented only about six thousand years ago. speech is usually informal, while the word choice of writing, by contrast, is often relatively formal. although pronunciation and accent often tell where the speaker is from, they are ignored in wiring because a standard diction and spelling system prevails in most countries. speech relies on gesture, loudness, and the rise and fall of the voice, but writing lacks these features. careful speakers and writers are aware of the differences.


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