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直接引语和间接引语

发布时间:2020-03-15

  sarah told me that she has two brothers.  莎莎告诉我说她有两个弟弟。(说话才认为这情况是真实的)
  sarah told me that she had two brothers.  莎拉告诉我说她有两个弟弟。(说话者对此没有什么把握)
  b. 间接引语表示的是现在的习惯动作、科学真理、客观事实、格言等。
  the geography teacher said to the students, the earth moves round the sun.
  → th geography teacher told the students that the earth moves round the sun. 老师告诉学生地球围绕太阳转。
  he said, every dog has his day.
  → he said that every dog has his day. 他说是人皆有出头日。
  c. 间接引语中动词表示的动作说话时仍在进行或状态仍然存在,时态可保持不变。
  he said,the window is brokn.
  → he said that the window is broken.他说玻璃窗碎了。
  just now brown said, my son is ill today.
  → brown told me just now that his son is ill today. 布朗刚才告诉我说,他儿子今天病了。
  d. 间接引语中有明确的过去时间状语,仍可用一般过去时,不必改为过去完成时。
  the girl said, iwas born in 1978.
  → the girl said that she was born in 1978.那女孩说她生于1978年。
  she said, my teacher was busy yesterday.
  → she said that her teacher was busy yesterday. 她说她老师昨天很忙。

  2.情态动词的变化
  情态动词在间接引语中都可以改为过去式,must表示必、推测、禁止等意思时,可不变;表示必须时可不变,也可用had to 或would have to。
  the senior said, all men must die.
  → the senior said that all men must die. 那老者说人总是要死的。
  she said, i must go to see the doctor tomorrow afternoon.
  → she saidshe mustwould have to go to see the doctor the next afternoon. 她说第二天下午她一定得去看医生。
  he said to me, we used to go there every year.
  → he toldme that they used to come here every year. 他对我说他们过去每年都来这里。(used to在间接引语中不变)
b. 代词的变化

  1.人称代词的变化
  ①当主句的主语是第一人称时,引语中的人称代词不变。
  i said, you did quite well in the exam yesterday.
  → i said that you had done quite well in the exam the day before.我说你那天考得不错。
  ②直接引语中主语是第一人称时,在改为间接引语时,其人称与主句中的主语的人称一致。
  he said to tom, i'll do my best to catch up with others.
  → he told tom that he would do his best to catch up with others.   他告诉汤姆他将尽他所能赶上其他人。
  ③直接引语中主语是第二人称时,在改为间接引语时,其人称和主句的宾语相一致。
  he said to her, where did you put the glasses
  → he asked her where she had put the glasses. 他问她,她把杯子放哪儿了。

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